The experience of menopausal symptoms for women varies widely


 Menopause is a natural phenomenon which occurs in all women when their finite number of eggs becomes depleted and their monthly flow ceases or pauses for at least 12 months. 


The eggs/ovaries are responsible for the production of estrogen and progesterone hormones and as the eggs declined the levels of these hormones fall, causing the monthly flow to first become erratic and eventually stop. Consequently, most menopausal complaints or symptoms are as a result of the decline of these two hormones on the woman’s body physically and mentally.

95 percent of women become menopausal between the ages of 45 to 55 years and factors which can affect the age at which women have their final period includes;

  • Age at first menses
  • Number of children
  • Previous use of oral contraceptives
  • BMI- Weight
  • Ethnicity and
  • Family history/Genetics

The experience of menopausal symptoms for women varies widely; some symptoms begin while still menstruating and others not until a year or more after their last period. Symptoms of the menopause last far longer than most women anticipate; for example, night sweats and hot flushes, persist in more than half of women for more than seven years.


Common menopausal symptoms

1.   Menstrual irregularities: The typical presentation of some women is to see the GP to rule out they are pregnant. Irregularities to the menstrual cycle may last for up to four years and the cycle may lengthen or shorten with a slight increase in the amount of menstrual blood. For few, the flow stops abruptly.

2.   Hot flushes and sweats: The face, head, neck and chest and body suddenly becomes hot. Some describe this as internal heat, and the symptoms may last for several minutes and feel like the chill of a fever. Many women think they are coming down with Malaria or Typhoid.

 3.  Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM): Steroid hormones decreases can lead to changes in certain areas of her body, like the vagina, vulva, and bladder. For example, estrogen helps keep the vagina moist and flexible. But when estrogen levels decline, the vagina can become dry and tight.

GSM is thought to affect about half of postmenopausal women. Symptoms include:

• Dryness, burning sensations, and irritation in the genital area

• Poor vaginal lubrication during sex, discomfort or pain with intercourse, and impaired sexual function

• An urgent need to urinate, painful urination, or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)

GSM is chronic and progressive. It does not get better over time. However, symptoms can be managed with treatment.


4. Sleep disturbance: The new and different feeling of menopause adds to other psychosocial factors like dissatisfaction, depression, irritability and this affects sleeping patterns and concentration.

5. Mood changes: Anxiety, nervousness, irritability, memory loss and difficulty concentrating.

6. Low back pain with generalized joint aches: Many women complain of this. Estrogen helps to maintain the strength of bones and the decline allows the bones to become more brittle.

Health Screens For menopausal women

Once a woman is 45, she must become aware of other diseases that can mimic menopausal symptoms as well as understand the diseases she’s also at risk of contracting.

  • Thyroid Function Tests – can help differentiate thyroid disease symptoms from menopausal symptoms.
  • Blood glucose (FBG and HbA1c)- as diabetes, especially associated with PCOS can cause similar symptoms, it is important to screen for type two diabetes as the age of onset begins from 30.
  • Blood cholesterol and triglycerides – Estrogen interestingly reduces the risk of hypertension in women. Cardiovascular risk factors such as being overweight or having a sedentary lifestyle must, therefore, be screened immediately a woman enters menopause.
  • Cervical screening (Pap smear) and mammograms
  • A pelvic scan – may be considered for those women with atypical symptoms.
  • Other screenings are selected by the physician based on the complaints. They may include renal function test with serum electrolytes including calcium, liver function tests, a Xray/MRI of the lower back or joints. 
  • Book to have a complete health screen in Lagos at                      


Healthy lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle; Stopping smoking, losing weight and limiting alcohol are beneficial. Also, regular aerobic exercise and adequate calcium intake (around 700 mg/day) help.


HRT is the most effective treatment to relieve the symptoms caused by the menopause completely. In addition to relieving hot flashes, it also helps;

Mood lability/depression – HRT, alone or in combination with an antidepressant

Joint aches and pains

Genitourinary symptoms of menopause (GSM) – The epithelial linings of the vagina and urethra are very sensitive to estrogen, and estrogen deficiency leads to thinning of the vaginal epithelium.

Osteoporosis – Bisphosphonates are best for this, however, in the occasional patient with persistent menopausal symptoms who cannot tolerate first and second-line therapies for osteoporosis, estrogen may be a reasonable option.

Register and consult with a GP online now, or book a gynecologist or urologist to find out more at

Psychological symptoms

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can also be beneficial.

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM)

Because genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) refers to a number of different symptoms, treatment depends on a woman’s individual situation.

Pain during sex due to vaginal dryness can be alleviated with lubricants, moisturizers, or low-dose vaginal estrogen treatment. Or, if she has urinary problems, she might try pelvic floor physical therapy.

Women who suspect they’re having GSM-related should speak to their doctor. Many women don’t realize that treatments are available, but some symptoms can be easily managed.

Alternatives to HRT

Herbal or complementary treatments

  1. Phyto-oestrogens are naturally occurring compounds found in plant sources, that are structurally related to estradiol. Foods such as soybeans, as well as nuts, wholegrain cereals and, igbo-ora yam, are the foods most rich in phytoestrogens.
  2. Sex! Regular intercourse prior to the onset of symptoms may contribute a great deal to the alleviation of menopausal symptoms. Although no studies have been conducted to confirm this, several studies show that intravaginal steroids administration was able to rapidly and efficiently achieve correction of all the signs and symptoms of vaginal atrophy, improve sexual function and caused no or minimal changes in serum sex steroid levels, guess what? All these steroids are abundant in the male semen!


A moment of patience in a moment of anger saves a thousand moments of regret; Anger begins with madness and ends in regret.

Anger is an intense emotional response that involves a strong uncomfortable and hostile response to a perceived provocation, hurt or threat. Anger can occur when a person feels their personal boundaries are being or are going to be violated.

There is a sharp distinction between anger and aggression (verbal or physical, direct or indirect) even though they mutually influence each other. While anger can activate aggression or increase its probability or intensity, it is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for aggression.

There is a part of the brain responsible for identifying threats to our well-being. Part of this responsibility is sending out alarms when a threat is identified and the body responds in many ways depending on how we have wired ourselves.

For those who are impulsive, in an effort to protect themselves, their reactions override the part of the brain responsible for thought and judgment. In other words, although the brain is wired in such a way as to influence us to act before we can properly consider the consequences of our actions, we also have the option and control of processing our reactions.

Anger instigates physiological responses such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline which are stress hormones that our body secrete as a fight or flight response. Also, expression of anger can be found in facial expressions eg clenching of the jaw, body language like clenching of the fist,  and at times subtle acts like the eyes becoming red or even a wry sardonic laugh.

Modern psychologists view anger as a primary, natural, and mature emotion experienced by virtually all humans at times, and as something that has functional value for survival. Uncontrolled anger can, however, negatively affect personal or social well-being and impact negatively on those around them. It is equally challenging to be around an angry person and the impact can also cause psychological/emotional trauma if not dealt with.

Characteristics of Anger

Passive anger

  • Dispassion, such as giving someone the cold shoulder; Evasiveness, such as turning one’s back in a crisis, avoiding conflict; Defeatism, such as setting yourself and others up for failure; Obsessive behavior, such as needing to be inordinately clean and tidy, making a habit of constantly checking things; Psychological manipulation, such as provoking people to aggression and then patronizing them, provoking aggression but staying on the sidelines, emotional blackmail, false tearfulness, feigning illness; Secretive behavior, such as stockpiling resentments that are expressed behind people’s backs, giving the silent treatment or under the breath mutterings, avoiding eye contact; Self-blame, such as apologizing too often, being overly critical, inviting criticism.

Aggressive anger

  • Bullying, such as threatening people directly; Destructiveness, such as destroying objects as in vandalism, harming animals, child abuse, destroying a relationship, reckless driving, substance abuse; Grandiosity, such as showing off; Hurtfulness, such as violence, including sexual abuse and rape, verbal abuse; Manic behavior, such as speaking too fast, walking too fast, driving too fast, reckless spending; Selfishness, such as ignoring others’ needs, not responding to requests for help, queue jumping; Threats, such as frightening people by saying how one could harm them; Unjust blaming, such as accusing other people for one’s own mistakes; Unpredictability, such as explosive rages over minor frustrations, attacking indiscriminately; Vengeance, such as being over-punitive. This differs from retributive justice.

Assertive anger

  • Blame, Punishment, and Sternness, such as making them feel bad repeatedly and depriving them of some things you see as comforts and calling out a person on their behavior, with voice raised with utter disapproval/disappointment.


  1.  Identify what initially triggered the anger
  2. Reflect on how you related to the triggering situation e.g., what did you say to yourself about it.
  3. Identify all of the specific emotional and behavioral responses that followed.

Enhanced Personal Awareness

In order to stay less angry, you must have a clear sense of your anger and other people’s anger

Where and when does the anger occur? Why does anger occur (what events or situations lead to the anger)? What kinds of memories or images trigger the anger? How do you feel when you become angry (emotionally and physically)? What are you thinking when you are angry? How do you handle the situation that made you angry? Do you always behave the same way? If not, why not? What do others do when you become angry?

Anger Disruption by Avoidance and Removal

These techniques lead to interruption of anger by removing you, mentally or physically, from the situation.

Create simple strategies that can disrupt anger and give yourself time and distance to calm down, then approach the situation differently, at a later time. This enhances your self-awareness. Drinking water has a good therapeutic effect and in the Islamic religion, performing ablution is recommended as a remedy.

Relaxation Coping Skills

Anger is often marked by increased emotional and physical excitement. Relaxation coping skills target this excitement and can help you calm down when angered.

Relaxation skills include slow deep breathing, slowly repeating a calming word or phrase, picturing a personal relaxation image, or focusing on muscle tension and consciously letting it go.

Attitude and Cognitive Change

When angry, people often make bad situations worse by the way they think about them. For example, angry individuals tend to demand that things should be, ought to be, or have to be, their way—rather than just wanting or preferring them to be a certain way. Often, they call other people insulting, sometimes obscene, names. The problem situation is often seen as awful or catastrophic, rather than simply difficult, frustrating, or truly disappointing. By thinking about bad situations in this way, natural

Things should not, ought not, or have to be your way. You shouldn’t call other people insulting, sometimes obscene, names. Don’t see a problematic situation as awful or catastrophic, rather, see it as a salvageable task. By thinking about bad situations in this way, natural frustrations, hurts, and disappointments that seem much larger and lead to increased in anger can be dealth with objectively.

Acceptance and Forgiveness

Many things that others do simply can not be helped. For example, children spill drinks;  Spouses sometimes forget about issues that are important to their partners.

Thinking that others have intentionally set out to cause problems is almost always wrong. Thinking that they could have acted differently, if they really wanted to, ignores other causes of behavior. Thinking that the bad behavior of others is always intentional just increases anger and does little to solve problems. Understanding that some behaviors are caused by biology or genetics, or normal development, or economic stressors, is more realistic.

Communication Skill 

Some people experience anger because they do not have the necessary skills to negotiate common interpersonal hassles and conflicts.

Fighting with a spouse, for example, may occur when one partner has a poor negotiating skill and because such persons may also not know how to communicate well about family budgets and many other things, they resort to unconventional methods that may be provocative or aggressive over time. The Anger here has escalated because of insufficient skill at resolving the situation.


Monkeypox Outbreak

Monkeypox is a viral disease similar to smallpox and chickenpox transmitted majorly by rodents. The virus can spread both from animal to human and from human to human.

On the 22nd of September, 2017, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) was notified of a case of suspected Monkeypox.

The case was identified in an 11-year-old male patient who was presented to the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State in Nigeria.

Subsequently, 11 other cases were identified. All the cases are currently receiving appropriate medical care. All the patients are improving clinically and there have been no deaths.

A medical doctor and 10 persons who came down with the monkeypox had been quarantined in an isolation centre at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, in Yenagoa Local Government Area of the state.

As at 1st October 2017, 32 close contacts of the cases have been identified, advised appropriately and are being monitored.

Infection from animal to human can occur via an animal bite or by direct contact with an infected animal’s bodily fluids. The virus can spread from human to human by both respiratory (airborne) contact and contact with infected person’s bodily fluids.

Risk factors for transmission

  • close contact with infected persons eg- sharing a bed, room
  • using the same utensils as an infected person
  • Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals
  • Anything that favors the introduction of the virus to the oral mucosa.

Incubation period

It takes about 5-21 days but ideally it is 10–14 days. symptoms of monkeypox are similar to smallpox, although it is often milder.


Signs and symptoms

A distinctive feature of monkeypox compared to other similar diseases is that some patients develop severe lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) before the appearance of the rash.

The infection can be divided into two periods:

  • The invasion period (0-5 days) characterized by fever, intense headache, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph node), back pain, myalgia (muscle ache) and an intense asthenia (lack of energy);
  • The skin eruption period (within 1-3 days after the appearance of fever) where the various stages of the rash appear.

Rash often begins

  • on the face and then spreading elsewhere on the body.
  • The face (in 95% of cases), and palms of the hands and soles of the feet (75%) are most affected.
  • Evolution of the rash begins with lesions with a flat base to vesicles (small fluid-filled blisters), pustules, followed by crusts occurs in approximately 10 days. Three weeks might be necessary before the complete disappearance of the crusts.
  • Rash can also affect oral mucous membranes (in 70% of cases), genitalia (30%), and conjunctivae (eyelid) (20%)

Severe cases occur more commonly among children and are related to the extent of virus exposure, patient health status and severity of complications.


The differential diagnoses that must be considered include other rash illnesses, such as, smallpox, chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, syphilis, and medication-associated allergies. Lymphadenopathy during the prodromal stage of illness can be a clinical feature to distinguish it from smallpox.

Monkeypox can only be diagnosed definitively in the laboratory where the virus can be identified by a number of different tests:

  • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • antigen detection tests
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
  • virus isolation by cell culture

Treatment and vaccine

There are no specific treatments or vaccines available for monkeypox infection, but outbreaks can be controlled.


Vaccination against smallpox is assumed to provide protection against human monkeypox infection however routine smallpox vaccination was discontinued following the apparent eradication of smallpox.


Any human that might have come into contact with an infected animal/human should be quarantined, handled with standard precautions and observed for monkeypox symptoms for 30 days.

Reducing the risk of infection in people

During human monkeypox outbreaks, close contact with other patients is the most significant risk factor for monkeypox virus infection. In the absence of specific treatment or vaccine, the only way to reduce infection in people is by raising awareness of the risk factors and educating people about the measures they can take to reduce exposure to the virus. Surveillance measures and rapid identification of new cases is critical for outbreak containment.

  •  Gloves and protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill people. Regular hand washing should be carried out after caring for or visiting sick people.
  • Reducing the risk of animal-to-human transmission. Efforts to prevent transmission in endemic regions should focus on thoroughly cooking all animal products (blood, meat) before eating. Gloves and other appropriate protective clothing should be worn while handling sick animals or their infected tissues, and during slaughtering procedures.
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  • Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed monkeypox virus infection, or handling specimens from them, should implement standard infection control precautions.
  • Healthcare workers and those treating or exposed to patients with monkeypox or their samples should consider being immunized against smallpox via their national health authorities. Older smallpox vaccines should not be administered to people with comprised immune systems.
  • Samples taken from people and animals with suspected monkeypox virus infection should be handled by trained staff working in suitably equipped laboratories.
"Mad cow, deer tick, monkey pox, what's next?"
“Mad cow, deer tick, monkey pox, what’s next?”

Continue reading “Monkeypox Outbreak”


Blood Cancer: The Leukemias

Just like any other cancer which is basically an abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth, the human blood is not left out of this inferno. Blood cancer is literarily a condition whereby blood cells continue to proliferate uncontrollably.

Leukemia Symptoms, Types, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prevention, Nutritions, Cure (1)

What is Leukemia?

Leukemias are a heterogeneous group of malignant disorders which is characterized by uncontrolled clonal (single cell) proliferation of blast cells in the bone marrow and body tissues. To put it simply, imagine a pregnant woman delivering 100 premature babies every year whenever she gets pregnant!

Blast cells are immature blood cells. Blood cells go through about 5 stages before they become mature and are able to perform their functions. In leukemia, immature cells accumulate and are unable to reach their full matured state.


Blood cells produced in the bone marrow (the soft spongy center of long bones of the arms and legs) include; The Red Cells, White Cells, and Platelets.

While the red cells are responsible for carrying oxygen, providing nutrients to body cells and tissues to ensure their survivals as well as transporting waste products away from those same cells,

The white cells act as defense mechanisms of the body to fight and guard against infections. They are basically the B (The Myeloid cell line) and T cells (The Lymphoid cell line).

Platelets are responsible for the formation of blood clots at sites of injury.

Stages of Blood Cells Production.

Leukemia can be Acute- (of short, quick and fatal onset) or Chronic- (continues over an extended period of time) while it is being managed.




Characterized by 20% or more of blast cells in the bone marrow. It is of abrupt onset and is rapidly fatal. The survival rate is <6 months without treatment. The more recent WHO classification of acute leukemia relates it with other Chromosomal Abnormalities E.g. Down Syndrome.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common Leukemia in children falling off by 10 years with a secondary rise after the age of 40 years. Its incidence is highest at 3 to 7 years while Acute Myeloid Leukemia is most common in adults.

Causes of Leukemias

There is no exact known cause but several risk factors of leukemia just like every other cancer, however, for Acute Leukemias;

  • The first event is thought to occur in the fetus in utero due to environmental exposure during pregnancy.
  • It may arise as a postnatal (after birth) mutation in early lymphoid cells in the bone marrow.
  • The secondary event is precipitated by infection in childhood due to the mechanism of abnormal response of the child’s immune system to infection.

It is of utmost importance to exclusively breastfeed babies for the first six months of life this boosts the child’s immune system and the introduction of a balanced diet in complementary feeding.

Furthermore, children with high level of social activity like those attending day care have reduced incidence of ALL because of exposure to common infections boosting their immune system

Symptoms and Features of Acute Leukemia include:

  • Fever
  • features of mouth, throat, skin and respiratory infections
  • Marked cervical lymphadenopathy
  • Testicular swelling
  • Spontaneous bruises, purpura and bleeding gums.


 Laboratory Diagnosis

1. Bone marrow infiltration checked with bone marrow biopsy

  • Anemia (Reduced Blood hemoglobin concentration)
  • Leucopenia (Reduced white cells count)
  • Thrombocytopenia (Reduced platelet count)
  • Hypercellular bone marrow with >20% blast cells.
  • Infiltration of organs Liver, Spleen and lymph nodes.

2. Cerebrospinal fluid examination contains blast cells (CSF is meant to be a clear colorless fluid which cushions the brain)

3. Increase uric acid as a result of bone degradation with deranges Liver and renal function tests

4. Radiography may include lytic bone lesions

5. Other tests like a CT scan which may be needed for staging as well as other investigations depending on the salient signs


Supportive Therapy: Prompt treatment of any episode of fever, blood and blood products support.

Specific Therapy: Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Short and intensive courses of drugs.


The physician (Hemato-Oncologist) decides which is the best approach to treatment according to severity.


An unfortunate complication of acute leukemia is DIC Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

  • DIC is a disorder characterized by excessive inappropriate activation of coagulation and formation of small clots in the blood vessels. These clots block the flow of blood and are a leading cause of death in acute Leukemia.
  • The activation of clot formation is caused by road- like clumps of granular materials in leukemic cells called Auer Rods. This can as well lead to bleeding from the digestive and respiratory tracts as all platelets are used up in the formation of these clots.


Could be chronic myeloid or chronic lymphoid leukemia according to the cell line affected. It is characterized by rapid proliferation and growth of MATURED blood cells within the bone marrow.


Hypercellularity (increased amount of cells) of any of the different blood cells (eg White Blood Cell or Red Blood Cell) is a diagnostic feature. It is mostly asymptomatic and detected mostly in routine blood checks. It is nominated according to the predominantly increasing cell;

  • White cells increasing predominantly- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Red cells increasing predominantly- Polycythemia Rubra Vera
  • If it’s the platelets increasing predominantly then we refer to as Essential Thrombocythemia

The Chronic leukemias account for about 15% of Leukemias and can occur at any stage.

Chronic Leukemia is managed appropriately at this hypercellular stage. It is stable indolent and slow progressing. All efforts by medical personnel managing the condition are aimed at not progressing from this stage into the accelerated phase where symptoms begin to manifest and ultimately to blastic transformation. (Transformation to the acute phase)

General Prevention of Leukemias

Prevention is aimed at reducing your risks of leukemia since there is no known cause for leukemia as well as other various types of cancers.


Risk factors include;

  • Occupational exposures to certain chemicals such as benzene
  • Smoking and other uses of tobacco products
  • Exposure to large amounts of radiation
  • Down Syndrome or other types of genetic abnormalities
  • Smoking, other uses or exposure in pregnancy and in childhood to tobacco smoke (passive smoking).


The treatment for cancers are quite expensive and drain resources. This is even more so when the five-year survival rates aren’t encouraging, however, new treatments are emerging that can change the outcomes into a better prognosis.

Presentación de PowerPoint

Immunotherapy is the “treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response”. Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapies.

What holds true for most blood cancers is that the earlier you detect it, the better you can reign it in.



Mariam Mojisola Solate-Eshinlokun is a Medical Laboratory Scientist (B.MLS, AMLSCN) in Hematology and Immunohematology. She also has an M.Sc in view. She’s from Ogun state, a wife, mother and currently practice at the National blood bank, Khartoum Sudan.



Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer has been attributed to infection with HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV). HPV infection is usually transmitted sexually.


… her, she was doing this to help her only child whom she gave birth to while in the penultimate year of secondary school.  Regrettably, she said, ‘ i had aborted a couple of pregnancies and had sex with several men while in secondary school and by then i was seventeen because i had to fend for myself as an orphan who had no one to help me, but this child just could not be aborted’.     … that is the result the doctor said. She has stage III cervical cancer at age forty-five…


Womanhood is a world on its own and it takes patience, knowledge, and pity sometimes for one to dabble into such world. They have their own peculiarities in every sphere of life. In the medical world, as cancer remains one monster to deal with, peculiar to women are some cancers like breast, cervical cancer. In this article, I would focus on cervical cancer which from my own little experience most women don’t know about until they come down with it.

Cervical Cancer

The cervix ( pronounced: saviks) is the neck or narrow portion of the uterus(womb) where it joins with the vagina. Cancer is simply when cells of a particular tissue undergo uncontrolled (and often rapid) growth. Thus cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix.

Cervical cancer is the second commonest malignancy after cancer of the breast in women in developing countries ( Nigeria inclusive) and it remains the leading cause of death in these countries but the third commonest cancer in women in the world. Peak age when women present in Nigeria is 45 to 55 years. However, it is diagnosed in any woman of reproductive age group.


The causes have been attributed to

  • Genital infection with human papilloma virus
  • Sex at a young age
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Promiscus male partners
  • One who had or has a sexually transmitted infections. It is important to point out that HIV infection is associated with a very high increase in risk of cervical cancer.
  • Also, a patient with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia can progress to cervical cancer

What makes the Doctor think A patient has it

*Though, there are some that may not have any symptom but will come to the hospital with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear) result. This is in those that do screening

* abnormal bleeding from the vagina, majorly after sex

* bleeding from the vagina between menstrual period or after menopause

*offensive vaginal discharge which is characteristic

*pain on pelvic side

For those women that present late, they may have in addition

  • Backache
  • Leg pain/ swelling
  • Blood in the urine or bloody urine

Or the doctor investigates by looking at the cervix called colposcopy

How does the Gynaecologist treat

The treatment modality depends on the stage of cancer the patient presents with.

  • It may be surgery if it is at the early stage or
  • The use of radiation and chemotherapy for the more advanced cases
  • Or the use of chemotherapy or radiation for palliation for cases that have developed other things from it


There is a similar 5-year survival rates for radiotherapy or surgery for someone with the cancer. This survival also depends on the stage of the cancer. If stage I there is 70-80% survival rate but stage IV has 18% survival rate.

What is in this for YOU! 

The major cause of this disease has been attributed to infection with HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV). HPV infection is usually transmitted sexually. Condom use may not prevent the transmission. The HPV 16 and 18 are the major serotypes of the cause. Thus, a lady or woman who has been introduced to sex life should get screened two years into sex life and every 3-5 years. In essence, those who should have PAP SMEAR done are

  • Ladies who have started having sex
  • Or above age 21

The American Cancer Society, American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist recommend that

  • 21-29 years should have pap smear alone every 3 years
  • 30- 65 years pap smear every 3 years or HPV and cytology testing every 5 years
  • Greater than 65 years no screening recommended
  • Less than 25 no screening recommended because women aged 21-24 are at low risk for invasive cervical cancer but they are at high risk for HPV exposure and associated lesions.

Any Vaccine.

The joy here is that, one could be vaccinated against the Human Papilloma Virus (which is not only for girls but also available for boys) but for girls majorly. The vaccine is useful in those who have not had the disease and no usefulness in one who already had it. The two HPV vaccines approved in the United States of America are Gardasil and Cervarix.


THE GIST HERE is, please go and get PAP SMEAR done today and tell others about it. It is for your future, in other to live a meaningful life insha Allaah. So please present YOURSELF at any Government health care facility for details.

…. her sex partners were no longer patronizing her since they got to know about her disease as she even was no longer interested in that. She was no more lively, seems no hope for her. Her Chemotherapy drug has made her loose her hair, no beauty to display any longer. The radiotherapy also played it own part on the pelvis. At last, she gave up the ghost with a repentant soul. Don’t ask me if God would accept such repentance.  I leave YOU TO JUDGE…. this woman, this cervical cancer.

I.O Dada (Haniif ibn Toyin)


Childhood Cancers

To nurse one child in Nigeria with cancer, you need about N2 million on the average in a period of about two years


By Drs. Azeezah Shopeyin and Ajayi Abass 

Childhood cancers occur in children less than 15 years. They are devastating not only to the children but their entire family. In Nigeria, it creates a huge financial burden on the family as there is no supportive treatment plan for children and the cost of treatment is very high.

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Cancer leads to abandonment of treatment and consequently death of children. Hence, prevention of childhood cancers cannot be over emphasized. It’s important to note that in most fields of medicine, pediatrics have been found to be of significant challenge, because of communication challenges, and caregiver support.

Burden to public health

The international agency for research on cancer stated in 2004 that worldwide 160,000 children under 15 years get childhood cancers and 90,000 will die from it every year. In 2007, 71.2 of every 1 million Nigerian children below 15 years had childhood cancers.

Due to the lack of data in Nigeria, and the paucity of studies on childhood cancers, it is not easy to appreciate the burden of childhood cancers, this might be due to the preoccupation with infectious diseases which are said to cause about 25% of childhood deaths.


In an 11year retrospective study conducted in northern Nigeria, by A. Mohammed and A.U Aliyu, it was noticed that childhood cancers were 8.44% of cancers diagnosed within that period. A male: female ratio of 1.5:1.

In 2014, Consultant Paediatrician, Oncology/Haematology Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, LUTH, Dr. Adebola Akinsulirie, said about four or five cases of childhood cancer are seen monthly at the LUTH. That will give you about 50 children in a year. That is big as far as cancer in children is concerned in Nigeria. To nurse one child with cancer, you need about N2 million on the average in a period of about two years.

Types of childhood cancers

The most common childhood cancers accounting for childhood deaths in Lagos  include kidney cancer (nephroblastoma) and blood cancer (Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Acute myeloid leukemia)




Lymphomas (solid cancer of white blood cells) are also quite common childhood malignancies and neuroblastoma (cancer of nerve cells), others include leukemias, bone and muscle tumors.

Causal or pre-disposing factors

The cause of most childhood cancers are unknown in about 75-90% of cases, 5-15% are due to familial and genetic factors( intrauterine viral infections, parental occupational/ radiation exposures, war-torn regions and disasters, elderly maternal age above 35, parental especially maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.


and <5-10 % are due to known environmental exposures and exogenous factors (food, radiation, dyes, infections like intrauterine viral infection Epstein-Barr virus and leukemias/ lymphomas etc). It’s important though to note that cancers generally are caused by a variety of factors and are not limited to a single causative agent.

How to recognize childhood cancers early

Complaints about any of the following that does not go away in a child:

  • Feeling of an unusual lump or swelling
  • Unexpected paleness and loss of energy
  • Easy Bruising
  • An ongoing pain in one area of the body
  • Limping
  • Unexplained fever or illness that doesn’t go away
  • Frequent headaches, often with vomiting
  • Sudden eye or vision changes
  • Sudden unexplained weight loss



Prevention of childhood cancers

  1. Avoidance of chewing or smoking tobacco.
  2. Protection from sunlight.
  3. Limiting fats in diet
  4. A healthy diet with at least 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day.

Management of childhood cancers

Childhood cancers are managed by a team of specialized pediatric cancer care specialists, including pediatric oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, surgeons, radiotherapists, nurses and support staff include the nutritionist, social workers, pharmacists and other medical specialists. First, a correct diagnosis is made; depending on the stage of the disease from Investigations carried out, the child is given drugs,  and surgical intervention or radiation therapy may be necessary.


The challenges in pediatric cancer are numerous but surmountable if there is the will. These are

  1. Recognition of symptoms by parents
  2. Time of presentation/ late presentation
  3. Lack of funds by caregivers
  4. Limited diagnostic equipment/ facilities
  5. High cost of diagnostic investigations
  6. High cost of treatment
  7. Effects of cytotoxic drugs/radiation therapy
  8. Lack of political standing of their own as such children are forgotten in most policies.


The above challenges can be solved if

  1. Adequate awareness is provided about childhood cancers
  2. Children are exclusively included in the NHIS
  3. Funding is provided for research into childhood cancers
  4. Facilities for diagnosis and treatment are provided.
  5. Provision of psychological support and social welfare services.

In summary

Childhood cancers are a source of significant burden to the child, parents, and caregivers; as such a lot of support is needed; financial, psychological, and spiritual. The distress from the disease, the financial implications, and stress of accessing treatment including the toxicity of the cytotoxic agents is of significant concern, however, children are more likely to recover from cancers when they are detected early and commenced on therapy as quick as possible.




Dr. Azeezah Shopeyin graduated from the University of Lagos, college of medicine.With several years experience, she also has a master degree in public health. She’s interested in health education and promotion. She’s a wife and mother of two kids and she enjoys making people happy,

Dr. Ajayi Abass Oluwaseyi graduated from Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria. Also known as Juggernaut bn Yusuf, he is also a writer, an aspiring Neurosurgeon, and a Farmer. He currently works at the federal teaching hospital in Gombe.



Cancer starts from errors in coding as a result of mutations which could occur naturally by heredity when cells are multiplying or induced by an external agent


Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous and benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.


Today, millions of people will march all over the world to commemorate the world cancer day. Irrespective of our religion, tribe, nation and political views, this is the day we highlight to fight this menace that has claimed the lives of millions and shattered the hope of many families.


To explain cancer in simpler terms, biology has taught us all living things are made up of cells, be it unicellular (one) as the case of some microorganisms and multicellular (plenty) as the case of humans. The cell is the basic unit of life. Our cells contain the genetic material “genes” located in the DNA. These genes are made up of simple coding which defines the function of the cell.


 The interactions of these gene replaces cells when they are damaged or need to grow. These lead to the formation and functionality of tissues, organs and different systems in our body. Just like a computer, made up with various coding and algorithms which help different softwares to work and at the long run function in tandem as a computer.


Cancer starts from errors in these coding as a result of mutations which could occur naturally by heredity when cells are multiplying or induced by an external agent. Basically, these mutations could occur in genes that control the way cells grow; tumour suppressor genes (TSG) and oncogenes (ONC).

Tumour suppressor genes function like a break system in a car, it halts the growing of cells while oncogenes function like the accelerator of a car, maintaining the speed or rate at which cells multiply. When either of TSG and ONC is affected, what will happen is either cells multiplying at an abnormal speed leading to the formation of tumour in an organ. This occur due to the inability of TSG ‘brakes’ to reduce the speed or cells multiplying excessively due to much pressure on the accelerator, the ONC.

Causes of cancer

Some cancers develop when an individual inherits a bad gene with mutations, an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene from parents. As the person grows, the mutations increase and finally cancer develops at a particular stage in life. It is like buying a bad computer which eventually develops fault during use.

Some viruses induce mutations in the coding in these genes leading to cancer. Similar to the way viruses attack our computers leading to the deletion of some important files on the desktop leading to software malfunction and sometimes might affect the hardware.


Carcinogens, chemical agents like benzene that can cause cancer when inhaled or consumed can also induce mutations. It is like using a computer to visit bad websites with malwares, installing fake applications or software that is incompatible with your computer. Also, some environmental factors like exposure to radiation can lead to cancer.

Life style, practices such as smoking can contribute to the induction most cancers. This is similar to personal choices you make with your computer at your own risk, removing a flash drive inappropriately, shutting down your computer unexpectedly or using your computer in an environment where liquids could spill on it. These practices can crash your computer just as a smoker is liable to die young either by lung cancer or other respiratory disorders.


Another key risk factor that could initiate cancer is aging. The processes that control cell reproduction malfunctions. This lead to accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species that damage mitochondria (cell engine). For example, reactive oxygen species above normal levels can oxidize our DNA.

The cure, Our Hope

Although we have been blessed with an immune system that could detect and destroy cancer cells, many cancer cells are well equipped to survive and evade these cells. Scientists are left with the option of finding cures for cancer, however, every cancer seems to be different, making it difficult to cure all cancers with one drug. Also, cancers can be well-managed and prevented, telling us cancer is not a death sentence.

Early detection, you can revive a computer which is dragging or slow as a result of malware or viruses. Install an antivirus as quick as possible, there you go. Taking your car to a mechanic when it flashes check engine, when you notice the grip of the brake has reduced or when the clutch smells will definitely prevent a sudden disaster when driving.

As well, early detection of cancers will significantly increase the chances of survival. Doctors would administer different form of therapies just like an antivirus in a computer. Cancerous cells would die and in many cases total remission could occur. However, successfully scanning and deleting the virus on your computer does not assure you your computer can not be infected again, hence, Cancer patients who are in remission can also have reoccurrence.

Some cancers are gender specific, some are age specific, like prostrate cancer and there are recommendations for when to start detecting them.

Positive lifestyle, practices such as eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, maintaining a clean environment and avoiding junks can reduce the risk of cancer. Recent studies have discovered that processed meats, canned foods, over cooking food such as brown bread could cause cancer.

The Future, Cancer will one day be treated like any other disease with significantly reduced mortality rate. The approach to getting a cure is like traffic rules, using camera speed checkers on the road to prevent excessive speeding of cars and arrest those who over-sped by giving them a surprise ticket when they get home. We would one day detect and arrest rouge cells before the progression of cancers. The use of bumps on roads to prevent over-speeding and also slow down drivers, we are already slowing down the rate at which ONC drive our cells to induce cancer. In the nearest future, our immune system will boosted and trained to apprehend bad drivers of our genes.

Mahmud Abdullah Opekitan attended Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria between 2008 and 2011 bagging a B.Sc Hons Microbiology with a Second Class, Upper Division. He Also has a Master of Biomedical Science degree in Biomolecular Science- With Distinction. He’s currently wrapping up his Phd in Cancer Biology from Strathclyde Institute Of Pharmacy And Biomedical Sciences.